Contract Law Problem: Model Answer for Common Legal Questions


Contract law is a fundamental aspect of legal practice, dealing with the agreements made between parties. Understanding the common issues and their model answers can help navigate the complexities of contract disputes and ensure that agreements are enforceable. This article addresses frequently asked questions in contract law, providing clear and professional guidance.

What is a Contract?

A contract is a legally binding agreement between two or more parties. It requires:

  • Offer: One party proposes terms to another.
  • Acceptance: The other party agrees to those terms.
  • Consideration: Something of value is exchanged.
  • Intention to Create Legal Relations: Both parties intend to be legally bound by the agreement.

Offer and Acceptance

Problem 1: When is an offer considered legally binding?

An offer becomes legally binding when it meets the following criteria:

  1. Clear and definite terms
  2. Communicated to the offeree
  3. Made with the intention to create legal relations

Model Answer:

An offer is considered legally binding when it contains clear and definite terms that are communicated to the offeree with the intention to create legal relations. The offer must be specific enough that, if accepted, it would form a contract without further negotiation.

For example, if Company A sends a written proposal to Company B stating, “We offer to sell you 1000 units of Product X at $50 per unit, to be delivered within 30 days of acceptance,” this would likely be considered a legally binding offer. It contains clear terms (quantity, price, delivery timeframe) and is communicated directly to the potential buyer.


Problem 2: What constitutes valid consideration in a contract?

Valid consideration in a contract must meet the following requirements:

  1. Something of value exchanged between parties
  2. Mutuality of obligation
  3. Sufficiency (but not necessarily adequacy)

Model Answer:

Valid consideration in a contract is something of value exchanged between the parties, creating a mutuality of obligation. It must be sufficient to support the contract, but the law generally does not inquire into the adequacy of consideration.

For instance, if Person A agrees to sell their car to Person B for $5000, the $5000 is consideration from B to A, and the car is consideration from A to B. Even if the car is worth significantly more or less than $5000, the consideration is still valid as long as both parties agreed to the exchange.

Breach of Contract

Problem 3: What remedies are available for breach of contract?

Common remedies for breach of contract include:

  1. Damages (compensatory, consequential, liquidated)
  2. Specific performance
  3. Rescission
  4. Restitution

Model Answer:

The remedies available for breach of contract aim to put the injured party in the position they would have been in had the contract been performed. The most common remedy is damages, which can be compensatory (to cover actual losses), consequential (to cover foreseeable indirect losses), or liquidated (predetermined amount specified in the contract).

In certain cases, such as contracts involving unique goods or real estate, a court may order specific performance, requiring the breaching party to fulfill their contractual obligations. Rescission, which terminates the contract and returns parties to their pre-contractual positions, and restitution, which requires the breaching party to return any benefits received, are also potential remedies depending on the circumstances of the breach.

Important Elements of Contract Law

Capacity to Contract

Parties must have the legal ability to enter into a contract. Minors, mentally incapacitated individuals, and intoxicated persons may lack capacity, making the contract voidable.

Legality of Purpose

The contract’s purpose must be legal. Agreements involving illegal activities are void and unenforceable.

Both parties must genuinely agree to the contract’s terms. Misrepresentation, duress, or undue influence can invalidate consent.

Structuring Your Answer in Contract Law Problems

Two common approaches to structure your answers to contract law problems are the IDEA approach and the IRAC approach.

IDEA Approach

  1. Identify the relevant legal issues raised by the facts.
  2. Define the legal rules relevant to those issues.
  3. Explain these legal rules.
  4. Apply the legal rules to the facts of the question.

IRAC Approach

  1. Issue: Identify the relevant legal issues.
  2. Rules: Set out and explain the relevant legal principles and rules.
  3. Application: Apply these legal rules to the facts.
  4. Conclusion: State the outcome of the application of the rules.

Both approaches help ensure a structured, relevant, and focused answer.

How to Draft a Strong Contract

  1. Use Clear Language: Avoid legal jargon and ambiguous terms.
  2. Include All Essential Terms: Clearly outline each party’s obligations, payment terms, and deadlines.
  3. Specify Remedies for Breach: Detail the consequences of failing to uphold the contract.
  4. Review Legal Requirements: Ensure the contract complies with relevant laws and regulations.


Understanding the key aspects of contract law and common legal questions helps in drafting enforceable agreements and resolving disputes effectively. Whether dealing with breaches, the validity of oral contracts, or the necessity of consideration, being informed is crucial for legal practice and business operations.

Share this post

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *